glossary - web

absolute path The complete pathname to a file, starting at the root (/) directory. Example:
/home/myname/journal.txt
The absolute path to journal.txt is /home/myname/
More about absolute path at
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See also:
relative filename, filesystem
AB-so-loot PATH
Access See MS Access More about Access at
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ACK-sess
access control The ability to control who can access or change information, such as in a computer or in a web server. More about access control at
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ACK-sess kun-trol
accessibility The art of ensuring that as much as possible, facilities are available to people no matter what are their capabilities More about accessibility at
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ack-sess-ih-BIL-ih-tee
ACSS Common abbreviation for Audio Cascading Style Sheets More about ACSS at
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ay-see-ess-ess
Amaya An open-source web browser/editor, from W3C and friends, now being used to develop ideas in design of web clients ("browsers") More about Amaya at
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uh-MYE-uh
Apache An open-source web server More about Apache at
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uh-PATCH-ee
body 1. in programming, the set of commands executed by a loop is called the body of the loop.
2. In html, the body is the part of the html file between the <body> tags, containing the content that is shown on the web page.
More about body at
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BAH-dee
browser A program that allows people to view (or hear) informationon the web. A browser is one kind of web client More about browser at
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brow-zur
buzzword A word that gets people excited but doesn't really mean very much. Web 2.0 More about buzzword at
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BUZZ wurd
cascading style sheets A language for writing style sheets for the web. The recommendation for this language is written by the W3C. More about cascading style sheets at
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kas-kay-deeng STYL-sheets
CERN The European Particle Physics Laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, where Tim Berners-Lee invented the web More about CERN at
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surn
click-stream Information about where a web user has been on the web. It is made from analyzing the server access logs More about click-stream at
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klik-streem
client Any computer, program or process that makes requests for information from another computer, program or process: that uses the service of another program. On the web, a "web client" is a program such as a browser, editor, or search robot, that reads or writes information on the web The FireFox web browser is a web client More about client at
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kly-unt
CSS Common abbreviation for cascading style sheets. More about CSS at
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See also:
style sheet
see ess ess
digital signature "A very large number, created in such a way that it can be shown to have been done only by somebody in possession of a secret key, and only by processing a document wiht a particular content. It can be used for the same purposes as a person's handwritten signature on a physical document. Something you can do with public key cryptography. More about digital signature at
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dij-ih-tul SIG-na-chur
DNS Abbreviation for domain name system. More about DNS at
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dee en ess
document “Any specific type of file produced or edited by a specific application; usually capable of being printed.” "HTML document"; "Word document"; "Photoshop document" More about document at
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DOCK-yoo-munt
document object model Within a computer, information is often organized as a set of "objects". When transmitted, it is sent as a "document". The DOM is a W3C specification that gives a common way for programs to access a document as a set of objects. More about document object model at
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dock-you-ment ob-ject mod-ul
document type definition A document – really a "metadocument", containing information about how a given set of SGML tags can be used. In XML this role will be taken over by a schema. Often shortened to "DTD" More about document type definition at
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DOCK-you-ment type def-ih-NIH-shun
DOM Common abbreviation for document object model More about DOM at
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dom
domain name A name of a service, website, or computer. It exists in a hierarchical system called the domain name system. w3.org, yahoo.com, webwalker.to are all domain names. More about domain name at
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doh-MANE name
domain name system Domain names are for the use of humans, to identify machines, or such entities as websites or email servers. The computers actually are identified by IP number, and the domain name system translates the names to numbers, much like your mobile phone dials a number when you enter someone's name. More about domain name system at
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doh-MANE name SIS-tum
DTD Common abbreviation for document type definition More about DTD at
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See also:
schema
dee-tee-DEE
Dublin Core A set of basic metadata properties (such as title, etc.) for classifying web resources More about Dublin Core at
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dub-lin KOR
dynamic content Information on web pages which changes or is changed automatically, e.g. based on database content or user information. More about dynamic content at
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die-NAM-ik CON-tent
editor An editor is a program to edit files. They can be any kind of file, not just ascii text, such as binary files. The editor vi is used to edit ascii text files such as html, php, and unix configuration files. Some other editor may be used to edit the hexadecimal numbers in a file. More about editor at
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ED-i-tor
Enquire A program written by Tim Berners-Lee that became the prototype of the first web browser. The name came from the Victorian book Enquire Within upon Everything. More about Enquire at
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en-KWIRE
eXtensible Markup Language (XML) A simplified successor to SGML. It is W3C's generic language for creating new markup languages. More about eXtensible Markup Language at
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ex-TEN-sih-bul MARK-up lang-widge
eXtensible Stylesheet Language "A stylesheet language like CSS, but also allowing document transformation." More about eXtensible Stylesheet Language at
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ex-TEN-sih-bul STYLE-sheet lang-widge
filter Getting certain data from a broad stream of data. "Filtering information is essential for everyone in daily life. Filter by parents for their small children may be wise. Filtering by others — by ISPs or governments — is called censorship. More about filter at
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FIL-tur
GIF Probably pronounced "gif", not "jif", since it stands for Graphics Interchange Format, not "Jraphics ... " More about GIF at
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gif
google popular search engine plus "world's largest text-ad broker" More about google at
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See also:
g1, g2
goo-gul
graphics Images, or pictures. Two- or three-dimensional, typically drawings or photographs. More about graphics at
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GRAF-icks
Graphics Interchange Format A format for graphics (pictures) transmitted pixel by pixel over the internet. More about Graphics Interchange Format at
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GRAF-icks IN-tur-change-FOR-mat
hacktivism "Using technology in the service of human rights" — Dr. Patrick Ball More about hacktivism at
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HAK-tuh-vizm
HTML Common abbreviation for HyperText Markup Language More about HTML at
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aitch-tee-em-ell
HTTP Common abbreviation for HyperText Transfer Protocol More about HTTP at
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aitch-tee-tee-pee
http:// ... As in http://www.w3.org More about http:// at
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aitch tee tee pee
hypertext "Nonsequential writing": text that does not follow a sequence, but in which one can enter at any point and jump to any other point in the writing. The term usually implies that there are links in the text. These days it also includes other media than text, and can be called hypermedia. More about hypertext at
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See also:
Ted Nelson, Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web
HIGH-pur-text
Hypertext Markup Language A computer language for markin up a page of hypertext. It is the language that most web pages are currently written in. The language is made of tags inserted in the content. Often shortened to HTML More about Hypertext Markup Language at
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HIGH-pur-text MARK-up lang-widge
Hypertext Transfer Protocol A computer protocol for transferring information across the internet for a hypertext system. Often shortened to HTTP More about Hypertext Transfer Protocol at
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HIGH-pur-text TRANS-fur PRO-to-kol
information space An abstract idea: everything that can be accessed through networks — the web More about information space at
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in-for-MAY-shun space
Intellectual Property A figment of one's imagination, conceived in desire and nurtured by dreams of happiness. More about Intellectual Property at
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See also:
open source
in-tuh-LECK-chu-ul PROP-ur-tee
International Standards Organisation An international group of standards bodies More about International Standards Organisation at
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in-tur-NASH-un-ul STAN-durds or-gun-eye-ZA-shun
internet A world-wide network of networks. Each network is made of computers connected by cables or by wireless links. Computers communicate through the internet by sending information in packets, using a common language, or protocol, that they can all understand. One of the most common languages is TCP/IP. The web and email are two of many services which get to us through the internet. More about internet at
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IN-tur-net
Internet Protocol The protocol (language) that computers use to talk to each other across the internet. Sometimes shortened to IP. IP sends packets, which are defined by the Transmission Control Protocol (and so together they are known as TCP/IP). The IP protocol was designed by Vint Cerf and Bob Khan. More about Internet Protocol at
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IN-tur-net PRO-to-kol
internet service provider A person or organisation that provides connection to the internet. The connection to the ISP may be by phone line, cable, wireless connection, satellite connection, etc. The ISP then forwards the packets over the internet. More about internet service provider at
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IN-tur-net SUR-viss pro-veye-dur
IP Common abbreviation for Internet Protocol, or Intellectual Property More about IP at
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eye pee
ISO Common abbreviation for International Standards Organisation More about ISO at
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eye ess OH
ISP Common abbreviation for internet service provider More about ISP at
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eye ess pee
Java A programming language developed by James Gosling of Sun Microsystems. It was originally written to be an embedded language in small devices, but grew and was marketed as a web language. More about Java at
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See also:
Oak, applet
JAH-vuh
JavaScript A programming language developed by Netscape. It is sent to the the web browser as part of a web page or as a separate file referred to by the web page. It then runs in the browser (and so is a client-side language. (The name "JavaScript" was given by marketers. It is not Java and has no relationship to Java.) The language is now considered a variation of ECMAscript. More about JavaScript at
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JAH-vuh skript
Joint Photographic Experts Group A group which has defined a format for encoding photographs. This uses fewer bytes than the pixel-by-pixel languages of GIF and PNG. More about Joint Photographic Experts Group at
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joint pho-to-GRAF-ick EX-purts group
JPEG Common abbreviation for Joint Photographic Experts Group More about JPEG at
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JAY-peg
libwww A library (collection) of web-related code, from the W3C More about libwww at
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lib-dubl-you dubl-you dubl-you
line-mode Long long ago, people did not communicate with computers through "windows", or, before that, even screens. They typed commands (as text) on a terminal. The computer replied with text, which was displayed the screen, or printed on a roll of paper. It was kind of like a chat session. "Line-mode is still a very respectable way to communicate with a computer." More about line-mode at
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line-mode
line-mode browser A web client, or web browser, that communicates with the user in line-mode. It can run on all devices that do not have windows or mice. More about line-mode browser at
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line-mode BROWZ-ur
link A reference from one document to another (external link), or from one location in the same document to another (internal link). It can be followed easily by a person using a web browser, or by a computer program alone. The link is the "unit of connection" in hypertext. More about link at
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See also:
World Wide Web
link
media literacy "the ability to access, understand and create communications in a variety of contexts" More about media literacy at
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See also:
Article by Bill Thompson on news.bbc.co.uk
MEE-dee-uh LIT-ur-uh-see
meta Means, "something about itself". We might have a meeting to discuss where and when to have our meetings. That would be a "meeting about meetings" – a meta-meeting.
Meta-data is information (or data) about data.
More about meta at
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MEH-tuh
micropayments Technology allowing one to pay for some in very small amounts, usually meaning over the internet More about micropayments at
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MIE-kro pay-ments
MicroSoft Access See MS Access More about MicroSoft Access at
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ACK-sess
MIT Common abbreviation for Massachusetts Institute of Technology More about MIT at
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em eye tee
mobile devices Pagers, phones, handheld computers, etc. More about mobile devices at
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MOH-bil dih-VEYES-us
Mosaic An early web browser developed by Marc Andreesen, Eric Bina, and colleagues at NCSA. More about Mosaic at
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moh-ZAY-ick
MS Access A database system developed by Microsoft. Part of Microsoft Office Professional. Mostly used on low traffic web sites running on the Windows platform. More about MS Access at
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em-ess ACK-sess
National Center for Supercomputing Applications A center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). Their software development group created Mosaic. Often known as NCSA More about National Center for Supercomputing Applications at
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NASH-un-ul CEN-ter for SOO-per-com-pyu-teeng ap-li-KA-shuns
NCSA Common abbreviation for National Center for Supercomputing Applications. More about NCSA at
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en see ess ay
net Short for internet. Sometimes used instead of web. "I saw it on the net." More about net at
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net
NeXT The computer that was the development platform for the first web browser program. More about NeXT at
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next
node A thing that is joined by links. In the web, a node is a web page – or technically, any resource with a URI. More about node at
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node
open source Software whose source code is freely distributed and can by viewed (and modified) by anyone. open source is a trademark of opensource.org. Open Source Software, abbreviated as OSS linux, perl, php, internet More about open source at
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See also:
Intellectual Property, FLOSS, Richard Stallman, Larry Wall, Tim O'Reilly
OH-pen SORSE
packet A unit, or a piece, into which information is divided for transmitting across the internet. The rules (or protocols) saying how this packet is built are called TCP and IP. More about packet at
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PACK-et
perl A fourth-generation programming language, developed especially for powerful manipulatiion of strings and files. "the Golden Swiss Army Chainsaw" (cfeaver) Larry Wall More about perl at
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purl
PGP Common abbreviation for Pretty Good Privacy More about PGP at
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pee gee PEE
php A fourth-generation programming language, developed especially for the web. More about php at
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pee-aitch-pee
PICS Common abbreviation for Platform for Internet Content Selection. More about PICS at
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pee eye see ess
PKC Common abbreviation for public key cryptography. More about PKC at
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pee kay see
PKI Common abbreviation for Public Key Infrastructure. More about PKI at
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pee kay eye
Platform for Internet Content Selection A technology from W3C that allows parents to select web content for their children by their own criteria. A self-guided form of censorship; arguably better than government censorship. Often known as PICS More about Platform for Internet Content Selection at
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PLAT-form for IN-tur-net CON-tent suh-LEK-shun
PNG Common abbreviation for Portable Network Graphics More about PNG at
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pee en jee
Portable Network Graphics A format for encoding a picture pixel by pixel, for sending it over the net. Often known as PNG. It is a recommendation of the W3C, to replace GIF. More about Portable Network Graphics at
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POR-tuh-bul net-work GRAF-icks
Pretty Good Privacy An email security system that uses public key cryptography. Often known as PGP More about Pretty Good Privacy at
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PRUH-tee good PRIE-vuh-see
program One or more commands in a file, written in one of the many programming languages. In the unix shell a program would be run as a command. In a graphical interface (GUI) it would be run by clicking on an icon or select from a menu. On the web it might be run by clicking on a link or typing in a url. More about program at
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PRO-gram
protocol "language"; also "rules of behavior". The language and set of rules that define how computers will interact. Examples of protocols are FTP and HTTP. More about protocol at
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PRO-to-kol
public key cryptography Mathematical basis of a security system in which people do not need to exchange secret keys. Instead people have one "private" key that only they know, and one "public" key that everyone knows. Often known as PKC More about public key cryptography at
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PUB-lik kee krip-TOG-ru-fee
Public Key Infrastructure A hierarchy of "certification authorities" which allows individuals and organisations to identify each other, mostly for the purpose of doing business electronically. Often known as PKI More about Public Key Infrastructure at
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PUB-lik key IN-fruh-struc-chur
RDF Common abbreviation for Resource Description Framework More about RDF at
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ar dee EFF
remote procedure call When one part of a program calls on another part to do something, this is called a procedure call. RPC is a set of tools that allow you to write a program whose different parts are on a different computers, without having to write the code for how the communication happens. RPC is a generic technique; it is not a specific product. More about remote procedure call at
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ree-mote pro-SEE-jur call
Resource Description Framework A framework for constructing logical languages that can work together in the semantic web. A way of using XML for data as well as documents. Often known as RDF. More about Resource Description Framework at
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ree-sors de-SKRIP-chun frame-work
RPC Common abbreviation for remote procedure call More about RPC at
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ar pee see
RSA A public key encryption system. The letters are for its inventors: Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman. More about RSA at
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are ess ay
schema 1. In the web world, a schema is a document that describes the vocabulary of an XML or RDF document.
2. In the database world, a schema describes the structure of a database, usually as an entity relationship (ER) diagram.
More about schema at
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skee-muh
semantic web The data, or information, in the web, with meaning, that is, that there is data about the data, (meta data), so that "a computer program can learn enough about what the data means to process it." More about semantic web at
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suh-MAN-tick WEB
separation of form from content The principle that one should work separately, with the content of a document and with the style in which it is presented. This was an important factor in the decision to use SGML in the web's language, by the web's creator Tim Berners-Lee. More about separation of form from content at
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See also:
CSS, style sheet
sep-uh-ray-shun uv FORM frum KON-tent
server A program that provides a service to another program (called the client). A web server can access web pages, and pass them to the client programs. More about server at
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SUR-vur
SGML Common abbreviation for Standard Generalized Markup Language More about SGML at
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ess jee em ell
SMIL Common abbreviation for Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. More about SMIL at
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ess em eye ell
Standard Generalized Markup Language An international standard in HTML and a precursor to XML. Usually known as SGML. More about Standard Generalized Markup Language at
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STAN-durd JEN-uh-ruh-lizd MARK-up LANG-widge
style sheet A document that describes to a computer program (such as a browser) how to translate the document markup into a particular presentation (such as fonts, colors, spacing, etc.) in the screen, print, sound, etc. More about style sheet at
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See also:
CSS, XSL, separation of form from content
style sheet
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language A language for creating a multimedia presentation. More about Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language at
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SIN-kro-nizd MUL-teye med-ee-uh IN-tu-gra-shun lang-widge
tagging Labelling online content by the users, making it easier to organise information for all the users of a site. It is becoming the new search tool of choice among web users Used in sites like google and Flickr where people can label the content themselves. More about tagging at
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See also:
semantic web; Web 2.0;
interesting article at news.bbc.co.uk
TAG-eeng
TCP Common abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol More about TCP at
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tee see pee
Ted Nelson A guru and visionary. Invented the word hypertext, and envisioned much of modern use of it with his project Xanadu. More about Ted Nelson at
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ted NEL-son
text text – ASCII characters More about text at
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text
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) A computer protocol that allows one computer to send to the other a continuous stream of information by breaking it into packets which the other computer can reassemble. The sending computer can resend any packets that get lost in the internet. TCP uses IP to send the packets. The two together are referred to as TCP/IP More about Transmission Control Protocol at
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trans-mish-un kun-TROL pro-to-kol
Uniform Resource Locator "(URL) A term used sometimes for certain URIs to indicate that they might change." (I don't understand this either.) More about Uniform Resource Locator at
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you-nih-form ree-sors lo-kay-tur
Universal Resource Identifier (URI) The string (often starting with http://) that is used to idetify anything on the web. (The thing that most of us call a URL.) More about Universal Resource Identifier at
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you-nih-vur-sul ree-sors eye-den-tih-fie-ur
URI Common abbreviation for Universal Resource Identifier More about URI at
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you are eye
URL Common abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator More about URL at
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you are ell
W3C Common abbreviation for World Wide Web Consortium More about W3C at
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dub-ul-you three see
Weaving the Web Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web, by its Inventor, Tim Berners-Lee, the book, written in 1999, when the Web was 8 years old. The history of the Web, and his vision for the future. More about Weaving the Web at
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See also:
www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/Weaving
weev-eeng thuh web
web Short for the World Wide Web More about web at
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web
Web 2.0 A buzzword meaning:
1. technically, to use several technologies together on a website;
2. socially, "the social networking element to the net that encourages sharing and collaboration."
More about Web 2.0 at
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See also:
Berners-Lee discusion of "Web 2.0"
web too-oh
World Wide Web (WWW) "The set of all information accessible [through HTTP?] using computers and networking" and linked together as hypertext. Each unit of information is identified by a URI (what we usually call a URL). The Web was dreamed by several people, incluiding Ted Nelson, and finally invented by Tim Berners-Lee and first released in 1991. More about World Wide Web at
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world wide web
World Wide Web Consortium A neutral meeting of those to whom the web is important — commercial companies as well as non-profit organisations. They set the standards by which the web works. More about World Wide Web Consortium at
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world wide web kon-sor-shyum
WorldWideWeb With no spaces — The name of the first web client. It was a browser and editor that ran on a NeXT machine. More about WorldWideWeb at
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world-wide-web
www Common abbreviation for World Wide Web As in www.w3.org More about www at
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    wikipedia
"dub-ul-you dub-ul-you dub-ul-you"
If we are lucky enough to speak Hebrew, we can say "vu vu vu" instead.
It is also becoming common to say "dub dub dub". Thank goodness.
Xanadu Ted Nelson's planned global hypertext project. More about Xanadu at
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ZAH-nuh-doo
XML Common abbreviation for eXtensible Markup Language. More about XML at
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ex em ell
XSL Common abbreviation for eXtensible Stylesheet Language. More about XSL at
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    wikipedia
ex ess ell