programming language generations
Machine language programming.
The toggling of individual memory locations (by switch or other means)
In a first-generation language there is almost no abstraction.
Card readers and assembly language
In assembly language the programmer uses mnemonic codes like
MOV to represent particular bit sequences.
These codes mapped directly to individual instructions on the CPU,
and memory was still addressed directly.
One code meant exactly one CPPU instruction.
(More modern assembly languages don't always map as directly to the CPU as the older ones did.)
The first high-level programming language, Fortran.
Don't have to keep track of the location of variables in memory
In a third-generation language you tell the computer
the algorithms and data structures it should use to
calculate the results you want; but you use more abstract
logical and mathematical operators rather than directly
manipulating addresses in memory and CPU instructions.
In a third-generation language, statements represent several machine
These languages may be compiled or interpreted.
Java is a very advanced third-generation language.
Most of the other computer languages you're probably familiar with:
Fortran, basic, C, C++, Cobol, Pascal, as well as most of the ones
you're not familiar with (AppleScript, Frontier, Eiffel, Modula-3, ADA,
PL/I, etc.) are also third-generation languages (or 3GLs for short).
Fourth-generation languages (4GLs)
moved the abstraction level a step higher. In these
languages you tell the computer what results you want
rather telling it how to calculate those results. For
instance you would ask for the total sales for the
year, without specifying the loops necessary to sum
all the sales of all the salespeople.
Perl, PHP, Python.
SQL is the most popular fourth-generation language.
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