glossary - network

ARPAnet A loosely organized research network of university, government and corporate computer systems that used a common communications protocol, funded by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, later ARPA). The ARPAnet has evolved into the Internet. More about ARPAnet at
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AR-puh-net
DNS Abbreviation for domain name system. More about DNS at
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dee en ess
domain name A name of a service, website, or computer. It exists in a hierarchical system called the domain name system. w3.org, yahoo.com, webwalker.to are all domain names. More about domain name at
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doh-MANE name
domain name system Domain names are for the use of humans, to identify machines, or such entities as websites or email servers. The computers actually are identified by IP number, and the domain name system translates the names to numbers, much like your mobile phone dials a number when you enter someone's name. More about domain name system at
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doh-MANE name SIS-tum
hierarchy “An organisation with few things, or one thing, at the top and with several things below each other thing.” The unix filesystem is hierarchical: Each directory may contain files or other directories More about hierarchy at
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HI-ur-ar-kee
http:// ... As in http://www.w3.org More about http:// at
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aitch tee tee pee
internet A world-wide network of networks. Each network is made of computers connected by cables or by wireless links. Computers communicate through the internet by sending information in packets, using a common language, or protocol, that they can all understand. One of the most common languages is TCP/IP. The web and email are two of many services which get to us through the internet. More about internet at
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IN-tur-net
Internet Protocol The protocol (language) that computers use to talk to each other across the internet. Sometimes shortened to IP. IP sends packets, which are defined by the Transmission Control Protocol (and so together they are known as TCP/IP). The IP protocol was designed by Vint Cerf and Bob Khan. More about Internet Protocol at
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IN-tur-net PRO-to-kol
internet service provider A person or organisation that provides connection to the internet. The connection to the ISP may be by phone line, cable, wireless connection, satellite connection, etc. The ISP then forwards the packets over the internet. More about internet service provider at
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IN-tur-net SUR-viss pro-veye-dur
IP Common abbreviation for Internet Protocol, or Intellectual Property More about IP at
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eye pee
ISP Common abbreviation for internet service provider More about ISP at
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eye ess pee
MIT Common abbreviation for Massachusetts Institute of Technology More about MIT at
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em eye tee
mobile devices Pagers, phones, handheld computers, etc. More about mobile devices at
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MOH-bil dih-VEYES-us
net Short for internet. Sometimes used instead of web. "I saw it on the net." More about net at
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net
network a system of computers interconnected by telephone wires, ethernet cables, or other means in order to share information More about network at
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See also:
Computer networking at wikipedia
net-work
Network News Transfer Protocol A protocol (language) that defines how news articles are passed around between computers. More about Network News Transfer Protocol at
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net-work news TRANS-fur PRO-to-kol
NNTP Common abbreviation for Network News Transfer Protocol More about NNTP at
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en en tee pee
packet A unit, or a piece, into which information is divided for transmitting across the internet. The rules (or protocols) saying how this packet is built are called TCP and IP. More about packet at
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PACK-et
PGP Common abbreviation for Pretty Good Privacy More about PGP at
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pee gee PEE
PKC Common abbreviation for public key cryptography. More about PKC at
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pee kay see
PKI Common abbreviation for Public Key Infrastructure. More about PKI at
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pee kay eye
Pretty Good Privacy An email security system that uses public key cryptography. Often known as PGP More about Pretty Good Privacy at
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PRUH-tee good PRIE-vuh-see
protocol "language"; also "rules of behavior". The language and set of rules that define how computers will interact. Examples of protocols are FTP and HTTP. More about protocol at
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PRO-to-kol
public key cryptography Mathematical basis of a security system in which people do not need to exchange secret keys. Instead people have one "private" key that only they know, and one "public" key that everyone knows. Often known as PKC More about public key cryptography at
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PUB-lik kee krip-TOG-ru-fee
Public Key Infrastructure A hierarchy of "certification authorities" which allows individuals and organisations to identify each other, mostly for the purpose of doing business electronically. Often known as PKI More about Public Key Infrastructure at
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PUB-lik key IN-fruh-struc-chur
remote procedure call When one part of a program calls on another part to do something, this is called a procedure call. RPC is a set of tools that allow you to write a program whose different parts are on a different computers, without having to write the code for how the communication happens. RPC is a generic technique; it is not a specific product. More about remote procedure call at
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ree-mote pro-SEE-jur call
RPC Common abbreviation for remote procedure call More about RPC at
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ar pee see
RSA A public key encryption system. The letters are for its inventors: Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman. More about RSA at
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are ess ay
server A program that provides a service to another program (called the client). A web server can access web pages, and pass them to the client programs. More about server at
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SUR-vur
TCP Common abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol More about TCP at
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tee see pee
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) A computer protocol that allows one computer to send to the other a continuous stream of information by breaking it into packets which the other computer can reassemble. The sending computer can resend any packets that get lost in the internet. TCP uses IP to send the packets. The two together are referred to as TCP/IP More about Transmission Control Protocol at
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trans-mish-un kun-TROL pro-to-kol
X The X Window system - a standard interface between a program and a screen, that is used on unix systems. Invented by Bob Schiefler. "Unlike Microsoft Windows, from the beginning X allowed programs running on one machine to display on another", across the network. "Schiefler ran the X Consortium from MIT/LCS for many years, then spun it off, and eventually closed it." However X is still widely used on unix systems. More about X at
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ex