glossary - internet

access control The ability to control who can access or change information, such as in a computer or in a web server. More about access control at
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ACK-sess kun-trol
Apache An open-source web server More about Apache at
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uh-PATCH-ee
applet A small program, often written in java, which usually runs in a web browser, as part of a web page. More about applet at
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APP-let
buzzword A word that gets people excited but doesn't really mean very much. Web 2.0 More about buzzword at
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BUZZ wurd
CERN The European Particle Physics Laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, where Tim Berners-Lee invented the web More about CERN at
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surn
client Any computer, program or process that makes requests for information from another computer, program or process: that uses the service of another program. On the web, a "web client" is a program such as a browser, editor, or search robot, that reads or writes information on the web The FireFox web browser is a web client More about client at
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kly-unt
digital signature "A very large number, created in such a way that it can be shown to have been done only by somebody in possession of a secret key, and only by processing a document wiht a particular content. It can be used for the same purposes as a person's handwritten signature on a physical document. Something you can do with public key cryptography. More about digital signature at
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dij-ih-tul SIG-na-chur
DNS Abbreviation for domain name system. More about DNS at
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dee en ess
domain name A name of a service, website, or computer. It exists in a hierarchical system called the domain name system. w3.org, yahoo.com, webwalker.to are all domain names. More about domain name at
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doh-MANE name
domain name system Domain names are for the use of humans, to identify machines, or such entities as websites or email servers. The computers actually are identified by IP number, and the domain name system translates the names to numbers, much like your mobile phone dials a number when you enter someone's name. More about domain name system at
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doh-MANE name SIS-tum
dynamic content Information on web pages which changes or is changed automatically, e.g. based on database content or user information. More about dynamic content at
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die-NAM-ik CON-tent
E-mail_spam Usually called just spam More about E-mail_spam at
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ee-mail spam
filter Getting certain data from a broad stream of data. "Filtering information is essential for everyone in daily life. Filter by parents for their small children may be wise. Filtering by others — by ISPs or governments — is called censorship. More about filter at
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FIL-tur
google popular search engine plus "world's largest text-ad broker" More about google at
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See also:
g1, g2
goo-gul
HTTP Common abbreviation for HyperText Transfer Protocol More about HTTP at
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aitch-tee-tee-pee
http:// ... As in http://www.w3.org More about http:// at
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aitch tee tee pee
hypertext "Nonsequential writing": text that does not follow a sequence, but in which one can enter at any point and jump to any other point in the writing. The term usually implies that there are links in the text. These days it also includes other media than text, and can be called hypermedia. More about hypertext at
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See also:
Ted Nelson, Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web
HIGH-pur-text
Hypertext Transfer Protocol A computer protocol for transferring information across the internet for a hypertext system. Often shortened to HTTP More about Hypertext Transfer Protocol at
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HIGH-pur-text TRANS-fur PRO-to-kol
information space An abstract idea: everything that can be accessed through networks — the web More about information space at
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in-for-MAY-shun space
Intellectual Property A figment of one's imagination, conceived in desire and nurtured by dreams of happiness. More about Intellectual Property at
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See also:
open source
in-tuh-LECK-chu-ul PROP-ur-tee
International Standards Organisation An international group of standards bodies More about International Standards Organisation at
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in-tur-NASH-un-ul STAN-durds or-gun-eye-ZA-shun
internet A world-wide network of networks. Each network is made of computers connected by cables or by wireless links. Computers communicate through the internet by sending information in packets, using a common language, or protocol, that they can all understand. One of the most common languages is TCP/IP. The web and email are two of many services which get to us through the internet. More about internet at
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IN-tur-net
Internet Protocol The protocol (language) that computers use to talk to each other across the internet. Sometimes shortened to IP. IP sends packets, which are defined by the Transmission Control Protocol (and so together they are known as TCP/IP). The IP protocol was designed by Vint Cerf and Bob Khan. More about Internet Protocol at
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IN-tur-net PRO-to-kol
internet service provider A person or organisation that provides connection to the internet. The connection to the ISP may be by phone line, cable, wireless connection, satellite connection, etc. The ISP then forwards the packets over the internet. More about internet service provider at
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IN-tur-net SUR-viss pro-veye-dur
IP Common abbreviation for Internet Protocol, or Intellectual Property More about IP at
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eye pee
ISO Common abbreviation for International Standards Organisation More about ISO at
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eye ess OH
ISP Common abbreviation for internet service provider More about ISP at
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eye ess pee
libwww A library (collection) of web-related code, from the W3C More about libwww at
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lib-dubl-you dubl-you dubl-you
line-mode Long long ago, people did not communicate with computers through "windows", or, before that, even screens. They typed commands (as text) on a terminal. The computer replied with text, which was displayed the screen, or printed on a roll of paper. It was kind of like a chat session. "Line-mode is still a very respectable way to communicate with a computer." More about line-mode at
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line-mode
line-mode browser A web client, or web browser, that communicates with the user in line-mode. It can run on all devices that do not have windows or mice. More about line-mode browser at
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line-mode BROWZ-ur
link A reference from one document to another (external link), or from one location in the same document to another (internal link). It can be followed easily by a person using a web browser, or by a computer program alone. The link is the "unit of connection" in hypertext. More about link at
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See also:
World Wide Web
link
MIT Common abbreviation for Massachusetts Institute of Technology More about MIT at
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em eye tee
mobile devices Pagers, phones, handheld computers, etc. More about mobile devices at
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MOH-bil dih-VEYES-us
Mosaic An early web browser developed by Marc Andreesen, Eric Bina, and colleagues at NCSA. More about Mosaic at
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moh-ZAY-ick
National Center for Supercomputing Applications A center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). Their software development group created Mosaic. Often known as NCSA More about National Center for Supercomputing Applications at
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NASH-un-ul CEN-ter for SOO-per-com-pyu-teeng ap-li-KA-shuns
NCSA Common abbreviation for National Center for Supercomputing Applications. More about NCSA at
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en see ess ay
net Short for internet. Sometimes used instead of web. "I saw it on the net." More about net at
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net
network a system of computers interconnected by telephone wires, ethernet cables, or other means in order to share information More about network at
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See also:
Computer networking at wikipedia
net-work
Network News Transfer Protocol A protocol (language) that defines how news articles are passed around between computers. More about Network News Transfer Protocol at
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net-work news TRANS-fur PRO-to-kol
NNTP Common abbreviation for Network News Transfer Protocol More about NNTP at
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en en tee pee
node A thing that is joined by links. In the web, a node is a web page – or technically, any resource with a URI. More about node at
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node
open source Software whose source code is freely distributed and can by viewed (and modified) by anyone. open source is a trademark of opensource.org. Open Source Software, abbreviated as OSS linux, perl, php, internet More about open source at
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See also:
Intellectual Property, FLOSS, Richard Stallman, Larry Wall, Tim O'Reilly
OH-pen SORSE
packet A unit, or a piece, into which information is divided for transmitting across the internet. The rules (or protocols) saying how this packet is built are called TCP and IP. More about packet at
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PACK-et
PGP Common abbreviation for Pretty Good Privacy More about PGP at
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pee gee PEE
PICS Common abbreviation for Platform for Internet Content Selection. More about PICS at
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pee eye see ess
Platform for Internet Content Selection A technology from W3C that allows parents to select web content for their children by their own criteria. A self-guided form of censorship; arguably better than government censorship. Often known as PICS More about Platform for Internet Content Selection at
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PLAT-form for IN-tur-net CON-tent suh-LEK-shun
PNG Common abbreviation for Portable Network Graphics More about PNG at
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pee en jee
Portable Network Graphics A format for encoding a picture pixel by pixel, for sending it over the net. Often known as PNG. It is a recommendation of the W3C, to replace GIF. More about Portable Network Graphics at
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POR-tuh-bul net-work GRAF-icks
Pretty Good Privacy An email security system that uses public key cryptography. Often known as PGP More about Pretty Good Privacy at
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PRUH-tee good PRIE-vuh-see
protocol "language"; also "rules of behavior". The language and set of rules that define how computers will interact. Examples of protocols are FTP and HTTP. More about protocol at
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PRO-to-kol
remote procedure call When one part of a program calls on another part to do something, this is called a procedure call. RPC is a set of tools that allow you to write a program whose different parts are on a different computers, without having to write the code for how the communication happens. RPC is a generic technique; it is not a specific product. More about remote procedure call at
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ree-mote pro-SEE-jur call
RPC Common abbreviation for remote procedure call More about RPC at
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ar pee see
RSA A public key encryption system. The letters are for its inventors: Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman. More about RSA at
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are ess ay
semantic web The data, or information, in the web, with meaning, that is, that there is data about the data, (meta data), so that "a computer program can learn enough about what the data means to process it." More about semantic web at
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suh-MAN-tick WEB
server A program that provides a service to another program (called the client). A web server can access web pages, and pass them to the client programs. More about server at
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SUR-vur
spam "Unsolicited email", that is, email sent without the permission of the person receiving it. More about spam at
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See also:
E-mail_spam
spam
TCP Common abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol More about TCP at
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tee see pee
Ted Nelson A guru and visionary. Invented the word hypertext, and envisioned much of modern use of it with his project Xanadu. More about Ted Nelson at
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ted NEL-son
text text – ASCII characters More about text at
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text
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) A computer protocol that allows one computer to send to the other a continuous stream of information by breaking it into packets which the other computer can reassemble. The sending computer can resend any packets that get lost in the internet. TCP uses IP to send the packets. The two together are referred to as TCP/IP More about Transmission Control Protocol at
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trans-mish-un kun-TROL pro-to-kol
Uniform Resource Locator "(URL) A term used sometimes for certain URIs to indicate that they might change." (I don't understand this either.) More about Uniform Resource Locator at
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you-nih-form ree-sors lo-kay-tur
Universal Resource Identifier (URI) The string (often starting with http://) that is used to idetify anything on the web. (The thing that most of us call a URL.) More about Universal Resource Identifier at
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you-nih-vur-sul ree-sors eye-den-tih-fie-ur
URI Common abbreviation for Universal Resource Identifier More about URI at
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you are eye
URL Common abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator More about URL at
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you are ell
W3C Common abbreviation for World Wide Web Consortium More about W3C at
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dub-ul-you three see
web Short for the World Wide Web More about web at
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web
World Wide Web (WWW) "The set of all information accessible [through HTTP?] using computers and networking" and linked together as hypertext. Each unit of information is identified by a URI (what we usually call a URL). The Web was dreamed by several people, incluiding Ted Nelson, and finally invented by Tim Berners-Lee and first released in 1991. More about World Wide Web at
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world wide web
World Wide Web Consortium A neutral meeting of those to whom the web is important — commercial companies as well as non-profit organisations. They set the standards by which the web works. More about World Wide Web Consortium at
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world wide web kon-sor-shyum
WorldWideWeb With no spaces — The name of the first web client. It was a browser and editor that ran on a NeXT machine. More about WorldWideWeb at
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world-wide-web
www Common abbreviation for World Wide Web As in www.w3.org More about www at
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"dub-ul-you dub-ul-you dub-ul-you"
If we are lucky enough to speak Hebrew, we can say "vu vu vu" instead.
It is also becoming common to say "dub dub dub". Thank goodness.